Mnemonic: The 3 nerves starting with letter “S” are sensory only and supply superior and side aspect of foot (dorsum).
1. Superficial peroneal nerve (L4-S1): located lateral to Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL)
- Supplies: dorsum of foot and toes except between the great and 2nd toe
2. Sural nerve (S1-S2): It is formed from the medial sural nerve (branch of the tibial nerve) and the lateral sural nerve (branch of the common peroneal nerve)
- Location: superficially between lateral malleolus and achilles tendon
- Supplies: posterolateral leg, lateral foot, 5th toe
3. Saphenous nerve (L3-L4): It is a branch of femoral nerve.
- Location: just anterior to the medial malleolus
- Supplies: anteromedial side of leg, medial side of foot
Other nerves (Motor + Sensory):
4. Deep peroneal nerve (L4-L5): located lateral to Extensor Hallucis Longus (EHL)
- Sensory: between the great and second toes
- Motor: extends the toes
5. Tibial nerve: It divides into lateral and medial plantar nerves just inferior to the medial malleolus.
- Location: posterior to medial malleolus
- Sensory: plantar surface of the foot
- Motor: flexes the toes
Landmarks for Ankle block
- Deep peroneal: Lateral to Extensor hallucis longus tendon
- Posterior tibial: Posterior to posterior tibial artery
- Sural: Posterior to lateral malleolus
- Superficial peroneal: Lateral to ext. digitorum longus
- Saphenous: Anterior to medial malleolus