Antigenic Shift and Drift

Antigenic Drift Nature of antigenic variation: Minor Mechanism: Gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions due to point mutation in the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) genes. As mutations accumulate, antibodies generated by exposure to previous strains do not neutralize current strains to the same extent,… Read More

Thoracocentesis : Practical Essentials

Absolute contraindications of thoracocentesis There are no absolute contraindications to diagnostic thoracocentesis. If clinical judgement dictates that the information gained from the pleural fluid analysis may help in diagnosis and therapy, thoracocentesis should be performed. Necessity of an immediate alternative procedure such as open thoracostomy… Read More