Orexigenic and Anti-orexigenic peptides : Mnemonic

Orexigenic (Appetite stimulant) peptides Mnemonic: When you see MANGOEs, you feel like eating. MCH (Melanocyte Conentrating Hormone) AGRP (Agouti Related Peptide) NPY (Neuropeptide Y), Noradrenaline GnRH, GABA, Galanin, Ghrelin Orexins A and B Endorphins, Endocannabinoids Anti-orexigenic (Appetite supressant) peptides Mnemonic: NO BLACk PIGS Neurotensin Oxytocin, Oxyntomodulin Bombesin… Read More

Gastric glands and cells

Anatomically, stomach can be divided into 3 parts from above to below: Cardiac Fundus and body/corpus Pyloric/Antral Gastric pits deepen as we move below from cardiac to pyloric glands. Mucus secreting cells are present in all 3 glands – cardiac, fundic and pyloric but predominate… Read More

Calot’s triangle

Synonyms: Calot triangle, Cystohepatic triangle Boundaries: As described by Calot in 1890: Cystic artery Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Calot’s triangle as described in modern surgery: Inferior: Cystic duct Medial: Common hepatic duct Above: Inferior liver surface (right lobe) Contents: Cystic artery Right branch of hepatic… Read More