Maxillary Artery Mnemonic

Origin of Maxillary artery: Terminal branch of External Carotid Artery (ECA) Derived from: 1st Arch Divisions of Maxillary artery: 3 parts by lateral pterygoid 1st part (Mandibular part): winds around deep to neck of mandible 2nd part (Pterygoid part): travels between 2 heads of lateral… Read More

Erythropoiesis Simplified

Hemoglobin Switching mnemonics 1st to appear: Embryonic hemoglobin (Gower and Portland) Switch from fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin: “Gamma goes, Beta becomes, Alpha always” Fetal hemoglobin: α2γ2 Adult hemoglobin: α2β2 ζ chain α chain ε chain HbE Gower 1 HbE Gower 2 γ chain HbE Portland I HbF… Read More

Erythropoietin (EPO) Physiology

Structure of erythropoietin (EPO) Glycoprotein hormone 165 amino acids Molecular mass – 30 kDa Site of production/synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) Kidneys (75-90%): Peritubular interstitial cells Liver (15%; chief source in fetus and neonates): Centrilobular hepatocytes After birth, erythropoietin is not detectable until 8-12 weeks after… Read More