Vestibular Pathway Simplified

Vestibule and Sensory receptors Location: Medial to tympanic membrane and Posterior to Cochlea Sensory receptors 1. Macula: Present in otolith (calcium carbonate crystals) organs – saccule (anteriorly) and utricle (posteriorly) Both are connected by corresponding ducts, which together will form endolymphatic duct, this passes through… Read More

Auditory Pathway Mnemonic

Auditory Pathway Component Mnemonic E.C.O.L.I.M.A Ascending from peripheral to central the components are: Ear receptors (Hair cells) in Cochlea and Eighth Cranial nerve (CN VIII) Cochlear nucleus Superior Olivary nucleus Lateral lemniscus Inferior colliculus Medial geniculate body Auditory cortex Explanation of the Mnemonic Ear receptors… Read More

Simplified Approach to Parotid Enlargement

Diagnosis and management of a case of parotid enlargement requires systematic approach. Here, I have tried to present a simplified approach to parotid enlargement. A) DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES OF PAROTID ENLARGEMENT: 1. Infectious: Child: Mumps, Coxsackie Adult: S.aureus 2. Non-infectious benign: Epithelial: Pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor,… Read More

Branchial Apparatus Made Easy

Synonym: Pharyngeal apparatus Branchial (resembling fish gills) apparatus is like a sandwich – mesoderm and neural crest cells (branchial arch) between opposing outer ectoderm (cleft or groove) and inner endoderm (pouch). They develop around the pharyngeal foregut and are wedged between the developing heart and brain. Note… Read More