Hot Potato Voice

Synonyms: Hot potato speech, Potato in mouth It is a term for a defect of resonance in which the speech has muffled quality, fancifully likened to a person speaking with a (very) hot potato in their mouth. Mechanism of Hot Potato Voice: Hot potato voice… Read More

Dizziness : History and Examination

HISTORY Mnemonic: 4D-3E-2Fg-2H 1. Define “Dizziness”: Room is spinning/rocking/somersaulting – Vertigo Feel like “going to faint” – Near-syncope “Going to fall” or “Unsteady on feet” – Disequilibrium Feel like they’ve or are “left their body” or “floating/swimming” – Psychophysiologic dizziness 2. Duration of each episode:… Read More

Vestibular Pathway Simplified

Vestibule and Sensory receptors Location: Medial to tympanic membrane and Posterior to Cochlea Sensory receptors 1. Macula: Present in otolith (calcium carbonate crystals) organs – saccule (anteriorly) and utricle (posteriorly) Both are connected by corresponding ducts, which together will form endolymphatic duct, this passes through… Read More