Factor Va and VIIIa are different in coagulation cascade. They are the co-factors for factor Xa and IXa respectively.
Another mnemonic: protein C Cuts Coagulation by Cutting Cofactors (Va and VIIIa)
Protein S is cofactor for protein S.
Protein C and S pathway using the mnemonic:
- Time To: Thrombin (factor IIa) – Thrombomodulin complex
- Play Counter Strike: Protein C and S
- 5 and 8 o’clock: Va and VIIIa
a. Factor V leiden mutation: Factor V resistant to inhibition by activated protein C (APC) leading to hypercoagulability.
b. Warfarcin induced Paradoxical hypercoagulability: The half-life of protein C is relatively short 6-8 hours. With inhibition of vitamin K, level of protein C falls before that of vitamin K dependent pro-coagulant factors like II, VII, IX and X, which have a half life of 5-7 days. This results in loss of protein C anticoagulant effect before inhibition of coagulation pathway achieved, and for a short time the patient becomes paradoxically more hypercoagulable.
- This can lead to skin or subcutaneous necrosis secondary to thrombosis.
- Heparin is co-administered with warfarin initially in cases of DVT to prevent this complication.