Calot’s triangle

Synonyms: Calot triangle, Cystohepatic triangle Boundaries: As described by Calot in 1890: Cystic artery Cystic duct Common hepatic duct Calot’s triangle as described in modern surgery: Inferior: Cystic duct Medial: Common hepatic duct Above: Inferior liver surface (right lobe) Contents: Cystic artery Right branch of hepatic… Read More

Gastric Carcinoma : Quick Review

Etiology and Risk factors of Gastric Carcinoma Mnemonic: 14 “A”s Animal foods (smoked, cured or preserved – contains high nitroso- compounds) Anti-oxidant poor foods Acetaldehyde in Alcohol Acid peptic disease or Antigen i.e. H.pylori Atrophic gastritis and Achlorhydria Adenomatous polyps (precursor of intestinal type of gastric cancer)… Read More

Testicular Torsion

Learning Objectives List the differential diagnosis for an acutely painful scrotum. Understand the anatomical basis of testicular torsion. List common presenting signs and symptoms of testicular torsion. Describe both initial and definitive management of testicular torsion. Explain why torsion is an emergent condition and discuss… Read More