Fetal Circulation Made Easy

Following are the important features of fetal circulation: 1. Placenta plays the role of lungs; lungs are not functional: Like pulmonary veins, left umbilical vein carries highly oxygenated blood from placenta to heart. Like pulmonary artery, right and left umbilical arteries braing deoxygenated blood to… Read More

Brodmann Areas and Lesions

Frontal Lobe Area 4 (Precentral gyrus): Primary motor cortex (gigantopyramidal – only area that contains giant pyramidal cells of Betz) Lesion: Contralateral spastic paralysis (UMNL) Area 6 (Superior frontal gyrus; agranular frontal): Premotor cortex and Supplementary motor cortex (Motor planning) Lesion: Apraxia (Unable to perform… Read More

Lipoprotein Metabolism Simplified

Lipoproteins Composition of Lipoproteins: Non-polar core – mainly triglycerides and cholesteryl esters Single surface layer – amphipathic phospholipids and cholesterol Apoprotein or Apolipoprotein Class Abbreviation Density Protein Lipid content Electrophoretic mobility Chylomicrons CM lowest lowest highest (exogenous triacylglycerol) don’t migrate Very low density lipoproteins VLDL… Read More