Retinal Layers Simplified

The ten layers of retina – this microscopic anatomy is frequently asked in examinations and also important from the physiological viewpoint. There are plenty of mnemonics around the web, but we will proceed in a different approach to remember the 10 retinal layers easily. A.… Read More

Horizontal Conjugate Gaze Pathway

Components of Pathway For both eyes to look at a side: Contralateral Frontal Eye Field (Brodmann area 8) Ipsilateral PPRF (Paramedial Pontine Reticular Formation) Ipsilateral CN VI Nucleus Contralateral Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF) Contralateral CN III Nucleus Horizontal Conjugate Gaze Pathway Lesions of Conjugate Gaze… Read More

Vision loss – General Appoach

Diagnosis of the etiology of vision loss requires a step-wise systematic approach. The vision loss may be sudden or gradual, painful or painless, unilateral or bilateral, etc. One needs to take a detailed ocular history and examination. Step 1: Sudden or gradual vision loss? a.… Read More