Ethambutol Induced Optic Neuropathy

Mechanism of Ethambutol induced optic neuropathy Ethambutol is metabolized to a chelating agent. The chelating agent formed then may impair the function of metal-containing mitochondiral enzymes, such as the copper containing cytochrome-c oxidase of complex IV and the iron containing NADH:Q oxidoreductase of complex I.… Read More

Retinal Layers Simplified

The ten layers of retina – this microscopic anatomy is frequently asked in examinations and also important from the physiological viewpoint. There are plenty of mnemonics around the web, but we will proceed in a different approach to remember the 10 retinal layers easily. A.… Read More

Horizontal Conjugate Gaze Pathway

Components of Pathway For both eyes to look at a side: Contralateral Frontal Eye Field (Brodmann area 8) Ipsilateral PPRF (Paramedial Pontine Reticular Formation) Ipsilateral CN VI Nucleus Contralateral Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF) Contralateral CN III Nucleus Horizontal Conjugate Gaze Pathway Lesions of Conjugate Gaze… Read More