Erythropoiesis Simplified

Hemoglobin Switching mnemonics 1st to appear: Embryonic hemoglobin (Gower and Portland) Switch from fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin: “Gamma goes, Beta becomes, Alpha always” Fetal hemoglobin: α2γ2 Adult hemoglobin: α2β2 ζ chain α chain ε chain HbE Gower 1 HbE Gower 2 γ chain HbE Portland I HbF… Read More

Erythropoietin (EPO) Physiology

Structure of erythropoietin (EPO) Glycoprotein hormone 165 amino acids Molecular mass – 30 kDa Site of production/synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) Kidneys (75-90%): Peritubular interstitial cells Liver (15%; chief source in fetus and neonates): Centrilobular hepatocytes After birth, erythropoietin is not detectable until 8-12 weeks after… Read More

Aplastic Anemia : Review notes

Definition        Failure of bone marrow to produce peripheral blood cells and its progenitors Etiology The following illustration gives a brief idea about the etiological factors of aplastic anemia Now going into each etiological factor: – Autoimmune diseases: – Either they affect all the lineages (autoimmune… Read More

Hemolytic Anemia – Quick review

Although, we classify as intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, “diseases” don’t read the book. These disorders may be described as causing extravascular hemolysis, but your case may be the uncommon exception with intravascular hemolysis that was not mentioned. Diseases may cause anemia by both intravascular and… Read More