Cyanosis – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Blue disease Definition¬†of Cyanosis Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane resulting from an increased concentration of reduced hemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin (>5 gm/dl) or abnormal hemoglobin derivatives (eg. methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, etc.) in the capillary blood perfusing the area. Normally, cyanosis is evident when the Oxygen… Read More

X-ray of Mastoids

While we have more sophisticated radiological techniques of examination of the mastoids, the ability to read an X-ray of mastoid is a must for the undergraduate students of the medicine. While describing an X-ray in ENT or Otorhinolaryngology, you need to comment on these points:… Read More

Basics of Fluid therapy

A. Anatomy and Physiology of Body Fluid Compartments: Remember the “60-40-20” rule of body water. 1. Total body water: 60% (50-70%) of Total Body Weight Greater in ¬†lean individuals because fat contains little water Greatest percentage in newborns, then decreases with age 2. Intracellular fluid… Read More

Myringotomy and Tube Insertion

Synonyms: Of Myringotomy: Tympanotomy (Opening the middle ear cavity), Tympanostomy (Instillation of a ventillation tube), Myringocentesis Of Ventilation Tube (VT): Grommet, Pressure Equalization Tube, Ear tubes, Tympanostomy tubes Definition: Myringotomy is the incision on the tympanic membrane to remove accumulated fluid or to provide aeration… Read More