Tissue Specific and Named Macrophages

Subtle differences in the morphology and functions of macrophages develop as a result of the influence of a particular microenvironment. Appearance of macrophages to histologists have been described as a kind of mythological Proteus, “a creature who had the power of changing his appearance at will”.… Read More

Difference between Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis

Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are both granulomatous disease with similar constitutional symptoms, respiratory symptoms and multiple organ involvement with hilar and mediastinal lymph node involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of one from the other may pose significant difficulties. Sarcoidosis vs Tuberculosis (TB) IFN-gamma release assays (IGRA)Tuberculosis can… Read More

Opioid Receptors Mnemonic

Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. Mu (µ) Receptor (MOP) Mnemonic: MU CARDS Miosis eUphoria Constipation Analgesia (Supraspinal + Spinal) Respiratory depression Rigidity (truncal) Dependency Sedation µ1 mediates supraspinal analgesia, and most of other effects including spinal… Read More