Aplastic Anemia : Review notes

Definition        Failure of bone marrow to produce peripheral blood cells and its progenitors Etiology The following illustration gives a brief idea about the etiological factors of aplastic anemia Now going into each etiological factor: – Autoimmune diseases: – Either they affect all the lineages (autoimmune… Read More

Antigenic Shift and Drift

Antigenic Drift Nature of antigenic variation: Minor Mechanism: Gradual accumulation of amino acid substitutions due to point mutation in the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) genes. As mutations accumulate, antibodies generated by exposure to previous strains do not neutralize current strains to the same extent,… Read More