Erythropoiesis Simplified

Hemoglobin Switching mnemonics 1st to appear: Embryonic hemoglobin (Gower and Portland) Switch from fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin: “Gamma goes, Beta becomes, Alpha always” Fetal hemoglobin: α2γ2 Adult hemoglobin: α2β2 ζ chain α chain ε chain HbE Gower 1 HbE Gower 2 γ chain HbE Portland I HbF… Read More

Erythropoietin (EPO) Physiology

Structure of erythropoietin (EPO) Glycoprotein hormone 165 amino acids Molecular mass – 30 kDa Site of production/synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) Kidneys (75-90%): Peritubular interstitial cells Liver (15%; chief source in fetus and neonates): Centrilobular hepatocytes After birth, erythropoietin is not detectable until 8-12 weeks after… Read More

Aplastic Anemia : Review notes

Definition        Failure of bone marrow to produce peripheral blood cells and its progenitors Etiology The following illustration gives a brief idea about the etiological factors of aplastic anemia Now going into each etiological factor: – Autoimmune diseases: – Either they affect all the lineages (autoimmune… Read More