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Respiratory Examination – Dyspnea

Respiratory Examination – Dyspnea

Definition: Breathlessness inappropriate to the level of physical exertion or even occurring at rest (subjective and not a sign)
Mechanisms:
Chemoreceptors:
Peripheral: Carotid and aortic bodies (to pO2, pCO2 and H+)
Central: Medulla (to pCO2, not pO2, change in pH of CSF)
a. Increased work of breathing:

Airflow obstruction: Bronchial asthma, COPD, Tracheal obstruction
Decreased pulmonary compliance: Pulmonary edema, fibrosis, allergic alveolitis
Restricted chest expansion: Ankylosing spondylitis, Respiratory …

Examination of Hands

Examination of Hands

History: Hand dominance and occupation? Injury? Pain? Paresthesia? Impaired function? Swelling?
Position: Place the patient’s hands on pillow
Look: SEATS
a. Shape or Deformity:
– Wrist:

Radial deviation: RA
Ulnar deviation and flexion deformity: Spastic hemiplegia (CP)
Wrist drop (also finger drop): Radial nerve injury
Prominent dorsal ulnar and radial concavity (Manus valgus): Madelung’s deformity
Dinner fork deformity: Colle’s fracture

– MCP joint:

Ulnar deviation: RA, Jaccoud’s arthropathy (Post-rheumatic fever, SLE
Flexed …

Mendelian Inheritance : Basis of Genetics

Mendelian Inheritance : Basis of Genetics

Some important terminologies
Gene:  a functional part of the DNA molecule of a chromosome which directs the synthesis of a specific polypeptide chain.
Allele(allelomorph): alternative form of a gene found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Homozygous: the presence of two identical alleles at a particular locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes.
Hybrid: individual having two different allele at …

Text Presentation on Empyema Thoracis

Text Presentation on Empyema Thoracis

A) INTRODUCTION
Empyema (aka Empyema Thoracs or Empyema of the chest) is an accumulation of pus in the pleural space that occurs when an infection spreads from the lungs. It comes from the Greek word empyein, which means : pus–producing (suppurates). Empyema itself is not a disease but it is actually a condition complicated by another disease.
B) ETIOLOGY

Lung diseases:

Pneumonia (the most common cause)
Lung abscess
Tuberculosis

Rupture of subdiaphragmatic or liver …

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