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Retinal Layers Simplified

The ten layers of retina – this microscopic anatomy is frequently asked in examinations and also important from the physiological viewpoint. There are plenty of mnemonics around the web, but we will proceed in a different approach to remember the 10 retinal layers easily. A.… Read More

Basal Ganglia Pathways Simplified

The combination of excitatory and inhibitory signals in the basal ganglia circuit is pretty confusing. Let’s break the circuit and make them easy to understand. There are 2 pathways in Basal ganglia circuit: Excitatory pathway Inhibitory pathway Let’s declare 2 things first: Dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection… Read More

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