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Winter Nights (Poetry)

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As I prepare for the MBBS finals:

Smoking winter breath by the freezing cold of December
Shivering, numb fingers struggling to turn the pages over
Sleepless black eyes arduously chasing the blurred lines
A sip of caffeine water to …

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Chest Xray – Approach to hilum

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Hilum in human anatomy refers to the depression where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter an organ. The structures contributing to hilar shadows in a Chest X-ray are:

  • Major: Pulmonary artery and veins
  • Minor: Fat, Lymph nodes and Bronchial walls

Normal Hilum:

  • Position: Left hilum is slightly higher than the right hilum
  • Shape: Concave
  • Size: Similar on both sides
  • Density: Almost same on both sides

Approach to Analyzing the Hilum in Chest X-ray:

If the hilum appears abnormal, firstly re-evaluate for the rotation.

a. Analyze the position of hilum:

1. Identify main lower lobe pulmonary arteries: They can be compared to a little finger pointing downwards and medially. Sometimes, usually on the left side – it can appear only as the proximal phalanx of the finger.

Interpretation: If the little finger shadow of the right lower lobe artery is not seen then you must check for evidence suggesting collapse of the right lower lobe.

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Chest X-ray – Pleural Effusion

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pleural effusion xray

Pleura is a mesothelial lined sac that envelopes the lungs and comprises of 2 membranous walls i.e. visceral pleura and parietal pleura that encloses pleural space filled with pleural fluid. Pleural space contains about 0.3 …

Skin signs of Dermatomyositis: Heliotrope rash, Grotton papules and Shawl sign

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Dermatomyositis skin

Dermatomyositis is a connective tissue disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of voluntary muscles and skin. It is more common in women and the age of onset is 50-70 years.
A) Heliotrope Rash:

It is a macular, confluent, …

Chest X-ray: Alveolar vs Interstitial Disease

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air bronchogram

Interstitium is the scaffolding that supports the alveolar walls and surrounds both the alveoli and the terminal bronchioles. Neither alveoli nor interstitium is visible on a chest X-ray when normal. It is necessary to analyze …

Systematic Approach to Frontal Chest X-ray

normal chest xray

To make an appropriate diagnosis through a chest radiograph, it must be analyzed in a systematic manner. One of the common mistakes that students do is to miss the regions that needs to be looked …