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Approach to hypertension in pregnancy

Approach to hypertension in pregnancy

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are one of the major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in both the developing and developed nations. About 10-15% of pregnancies are accompanied by hypertension and if these are detected early and effective interventions are performed, the prognosis is good.
A. HISTORY:
Ask relevant questions necessary to identify the risk factors:

Maternal general
Age over 40 …

Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy – Basics

Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy – Basics

Blood pressure in Normal Pregnancy:
During middle trimester, due to the reduction in Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR) and Arterio-venous (AV) shunting within the uterus and intervillous space – the Blood Pressure (BP) falls below pre-pregnancy or early pregnancy level. This is compensated by relative tachycardia. In the 3rd trimester, BP usually rises back to the pre-pregnancy level.
Criteria for diagnosis of hypertension …

Pritchard regimen of Magnesium sulphate in Severe Pre-eclmapsia and Eclampsia

Pritchard regimen of Magnesium sulphate in Severe Pre-eclmapsia and Eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension (BP > 140/90 mmHg measured 2 times with interval ≥ 6 hours) and proteinuria (urinary excretion of ≥ 0.3 gm protein/24 hour specimen or 1+ in dipstick) after the 20th weeks of gestation in a previously normotensive and non-proteinuric woman. Pre-eclampsia when complicated with generalized tonic clonic convulsion and/or coma is …

History Taking in Orthopedics

History Taking in Orthopedics

A. IDENTIFICATION
1. Age:

<1 yr
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip (DDH), Cerebral palsy

1-2 yrs
Nutritional rickets, Poliomyelitis, Ewing’s sarcoma

5-10 yrs
TB of hip, Perthe’s disease

< 15
Acute osteomyelitis, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

15-20 yrs
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

10-20 yrs
Bone malignancies, Osteochondroma

30-40 yrs
Rheumatoid Arthritis

>40 yrs
Degenerative disorders, Avascular necrosis, Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc, Multiple myeloma, Metastasis, Gout

2. Gender:

Males: Perthe’s disease, SCFE, Traumatic disorders, Multiple myeloma
Females: Rheumatoid arthritis, DDH, Osteoporosis, Ankylosing spondylitis, …

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