Granular contents of Neutrophils and Platelets

Neutrophil Granules Azurophilic (Primary) Granules These are lysosomes that occur in all granulocytes, as well as in lymphocytes and monocytes. In addition to expected lysosomal hydrolases, they also contain peroxidases (used to demonstrate azurophilic granules chemically). Develop earlier than specific granules. Stains blue/purple by Romanowsky… Read More

Morphology of Granuloma

Concentric layers of Granuloma There are 4 concentric layers in a granuloma, however the clear distinction is difficult in reality due to overlapping. From inside to out: 1. Necrosis Caseating necrosis: Tuberculosis, Leprosy Coagulative necrosis: Buruli ulcer (M.ulcerans), Gumma containing central blood vessels (Syphilis) Fibrinoid… Read More

Chemokines Mnemonics

Difference between cytokines and chemokines Cytokines are small proteins released by cells, the function of which is “cell-signaling“. Chemokines are small cytokines, which functions as a “chemo-attractant“. Types of Chemokines When you go through the structural classification of chemokines, you come accross various arrangements of… Read More

Milkmaid’s grip in Chorea

Milkmaid’s Grip Milk maids grip is appreciated as an alternating squeezing and releasing of the finger like a milking motion, when asked to maintain a constant, firm grip of examiner’s fingers. This may reflect a combination of Chorea and Motor impersistence. As a result of… Read More

Tissue Specific and Named Macrophages

Subtle differences in the morphology and functions of macrophages develop as a result of the influence of a particular microenvironment. Appearance of macrophages to histologists have been described as a kind of mythological Proteus, “a creature who had the power of changing his appearance at will”.… Read More

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