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Winter Nights (Poetry)


As I prepare for the MBBS finals:

Smoking winter breath by the freezing cold of December
Shivering, numb fingers struggling to turn the pages over
Sleepless black eyes arduously chasing the blurred lines
A sip of caffeine water to …

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Chest Xray – Approach to hilum


Hilum in human anatomy refers to the depression where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter an organ. The structures contributing to hilar shadows in a Chest X-ray are:

  • Major: Pulmonary artery and veins
  • Minor: Fat, Lymph nodes and Bronchial walls

Normal Hilum:

  • Position: Left hilum is slightly higher than the right hilum
  • Shape: Concave
  • Size: Similar on both sides
  • Density: Almost same on both sides

Approach to Analyzing the Hilum in Chest X-ray:

If the hilum appears abnormal, firstly re-evaluate for the rotation.

a. Analyze the position of hilum:

1. Identify main lower lobe pulmonary arteries: They can be compared to a little finger pointing downwards and medially. Sometimes, usually on the left side – it can appear only as the proximal phalanx of the finger.

Interpretation: If the little finger shadow of the right lower lobe artery is not seen then you must check for evidence suggesting collapse of the right lower lobe.

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Chest X-ray – Pleural Effusion

pleural effusion xray

Pleura is a mesothelial lined sac that envelopes the lungs and comprises of 2 membranous walls i.e. visceral pleura and parietal pleura that encloses pleural space filled with pleural fluid. Pleural space contains about 0.3 …

Skin signs of Dermatomyositis: Heliotrope rash, Grotton papules and Shawl sign

Dermatomyositis skin

Dermatomyositis is a connective tissue disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of voluntary muscles and skin. It is more common in women and the age of onset is 50-70 years.
A) Heliotrope Rash:

It is a macular, confluent, …

Chest X-ray: Alveolar vs Interstitial Disease

air bronchogram

Interstitium is the scaffolding that supports the alveolar walls and surrounds both the alveoli and the terminal bronchioles. Neither alveoli nor interstitium is visible on a chest X-ray when normal. It is necessary to analyze …

Systematic Approach to Frontal Chest X-ray

normal chest xray

To make an appropriate diagnosis through a chest radiograph, it must be analyzed in a systematic manner. One of the common mistakes that students do is to miss the regions that needs to be looked …