Signaling Pathways of Hormones : Mnemonic

Table of Contents

second messengers

cAMP Mechanism


Remember “B-FLAT” mnemonic for hormones secreted by basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary. This is the same “FLAT” here.

Also CAMP matches cAMP.

Beta-HCG works by cAMP mechanism.

All 2 except Beta 1 and 5-HT1

So, this is an easy mnemonic to remember.

  1. FSH
  2. LH (+ Lipotropin)
  3. ACTH
  4. TSH
  5. CRH
  6. Aquaporin ADH (V2), Alpha 2 adrenergic (Both have 2) and Adenosine A2
  7. MSH and M2/M4
  8. PTH, Prolactin Inhibiting Factor (Dopamine), PGE2-EP2 and PGI2
  9. Beta adrenergics (Both 1 and 2 – Beta 1 and Beta 2)
  10. HCG and Histamine H2 (This is also 2)
  11. Calcitonin
  12. Glucagon and GABA-B (Assume B = 2)
  13. Somatostatin, Secretin and Serotonin (5HT-1 and 5-HT4)

receptor mechanism

c-GMP Mechanism

Mnemonic: Starts with “N”

  1. Natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP)
  2. Nitric oxide (NO)
  3. Night vision (photic response of retinal rods)

IP3/DAG Mechanism


  1. Hypothalamic hormones except CRH and V2 ADH
  2. All 1 except Beta 1, Dopamine 1 and 5-HT1 (c-AMP mechanism)
  3. BCGS
  4. 3 PΒ (Matches with IP3)
  1. GnRH
  2. TRH
  3. GHRH
  4. Oxytocin (produced by hypothalamus and stored in posterior pituitary)
  5. V1 (ADH)
  6. Alpha 1 adrenergic
  7. H1
  8. AT1 (Angiotensin II)
  9. Endothelin-1
  10. M1/M3/M5
  11. Bradykinin (B1 and B2)
  12. Cholecystokinin
  13. Gastrin and Ghrelin
  14. Serotonin (5-HT2)
  15. substance P
  16. PDGF
  17. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes (PGE2 – EP1/EP3, PGF, Thromboxane, LTB4, cysLT )

Tyrosine kinase (MAP and JAK/STAT) Mechanism


  1. All that have “Growth“.
  2. PIGLET (Remember the mnemonic PiG for anterior pitutiary hormones secreted by acidophilic cells. Both prolactin and growth hormone use tyrosine kinase receptor mechanism)
  3. MAP kinase pathway – Think growth factors (insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF)
  4. Non-receptor (JAK/STAT) pathway – Others
  1. Growth factors (EGF, FGF, PDGF, NGF, IGF-1 and 2) and Growth hormone
  2. PIGLET:
    • Prolactin
    • Insulin
    • G-CSF
    • Lymphokines (IL-2, IL-6, IFN, TNF, growth factors, GM-CSF) and Leptin
    • Erythropoietin
    • Thrombopoietin

Hormone response elements (HRE) on DNA

Mnemonic: All lipohilic hormones – Steroids and Thyroids

  1. Thyroid hormone
  2. Cortisol
  3. Aldosterone
  4. Testosterone
  5. Estrogen
  6. Progesterone
  7. Vitamin D

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