Complications of Long Term Dialysis

A) Cardiovascular complications 1. Exacerbation or Precipitation of CHF – Voluminous AV Fistula AV shunting → Decreased TPR → BP fall → Sympathetic stimulation & RAAS activation → Ventricular remodeling → Heart failure Several studies have investigated the cut-off fistula access flow that is associated with a higher risk of high-output… Read More

Approach to a Child with Edema

Before beginning the clinical approach to a child with edema, it is necessary to understand the basics of fluid compartments, starling forces and technique of eliciting edema. Life threatening causes of Edema: Generalized: Cardiac disease Congestive Heart Failure Pericardial effusion Renal disease Nephrosis Nephritis Hepatic… Read More