Under resting conditions, red blood cells move through the pulmonary capillary bed in approximately 0.75 seconds (transit time), although equilibration of oxygen and carbon dioxide…Read more Perfusion and Diffusion Limited Gas Exchange
Mnemonic: BATS Drink Blood – in sleep 1. Awake with eyes open: Beta wave (highest frequency and lowest amplitude) 2. Awake with eyes closed: Alpha…Read more Sleep Stages and EEG : Mnemonic
Duodenum Calcium Thiamine Iron Protein Carbohydrate Jejunum/Proximal ileum Fat Vitamins A, D, E, K Water-soluble vitamins Folate Essential minerals Copper Zinc Phosphorous Magnesium Terminal ileum…Read more Site of absorption of Vitamins, Minerals and Nutrients
Auscultation (to listen), a clinical procedure done on a daily basis as an aid in diagnosing many disorders, dates back centuries since the Egyptians. It…Read more Heart Sounds : Clinically Explained
Hemoglobin Switching mnemonics 1st to appear: Embryonic hemoglobin (Gower and Portland) Switch from fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin: “Gamma goes, Beta becomes, Alpha always” Fetal hemoglobin: α2γ2…Read more Erythropoiesis Simplified
Structure of erythropoietin (EPO) Glycoprotein hormone 165 amino acids Molecular mass – 30 kDa Site of production/synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) Kidneys (75-90%): Peritubular interstitial cells…Read more Erythropoietin (EPO) Physiology
You must have seen the statement in First Aid that says – low serum magnesium causes increase in Parathyroid hormone secretion and very low serum…Read more Why mild hypomagnesemia causes hyperparathyroidism and severe hypomagnesemia causes hyperparathyroidism?
Rule of 3s The measured hemoglobin concentration is 3 times the RBC count, and the calculated hematocrit is 3 times the Hb level. A significant…Read more Understanding Red cell indices
The principle behind Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) is pretty much simple. It is based on the principle of negative feedback exerted by steroids on pituitary…Read more Understanding Dexamethasone Suppression Test
There are multiple choice questions (mcq) which asks: What is the most important urinary buffer? And the choices include both the phosphate and ammonia. Different…Read more Most Important Urinary Buffer: Phosphate or Ammonia?