Some Neurology Mnemonics

FALLS – indications for CT BRAIN

  • A: Age > 65, Amnesia > 30 minutes before impact
  • B: Bringing up = vomiting > 1 (once)
  • C: Coagulopathy (hx)
  • D: Dangerous mechanisms: > 1 m or 5 stairs, PVA, Cyclist, Ejection
  • E: Epileptic fit (post traumatic)
  • F: Fracture: open, depressed, skull base
  • G: GCS < 13, on admission, or < 15, 2 hours later.

DELIRIUM DEFINITON KEY WORDS

  • A: Acute onset, ↓ Attention Awareness
  • B: Brief changes, Behaviour
  • C: Conscious level, Cognitive change
  • D: Disoriented, Disengaged, Due to Direct Physiological Disturbance
  • E: Exempt dementia (rule out)
  • F: Fluctuating
  • G: General medical condition
  • H: Hallucinations (visual)
  • I: Incoherent speech, and Intoxicated substances or medicines
DIFFERENCES BETWEENSEIZURESYNCOPE
ProdromeSeconds brief auraMinutes (nausea & vomiting, hot & cold)
PositionSitting, lying, sleepingFrom standing or follow exercise
LOCMinutes (2’)Seconds (< 1min)
ColorBlue/redPale
ShakesWith LOCAfter LOC
EyesOpenClosed
PupilsDilatedNormal
Tongue bittenMore likely Less likely
InjurySideTip
RecoveryAmbulanceAt scene

NON-PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT: NEUROBEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES

A:

  • Acute medical illness [infection, pain]
  • Avoid restraints

B:

  • Basic needs (walking, drinking, eating, defecating, sleeping]
  • Bring down the noise and stimulus

C:

  • Conflict (interpersonal issues)
  • Companionship
  • Complementary therapy (music, massage, art, pets)
  • Cycle sleep – wake

D:

  • Daily routine
  • Drug adverse effects

E:

  • Exercise,
  • Environmental factors (triggers, strains)

F:Family informed

RULE OF 1-2-3-4 (PUPILLARY PATHWAYS)

  • afferent
  • 2 efferents
  • 3 nuclei
  • 4 neurons

FACIAL NERVE

AAbove the nucleusBBrainstem (nucleus)CCPA angleDDuctal: Facial canalEExtracranial
Vascular, Demyelinating, TumorSyringobulbia, Glioma, MSAcoustic neuroma (Schwannoma)ViralSarcoid Parotitis, Melkersson Rosenthal
Hemiparesis/Paralysis of facial muscles (ipsilateral)Dissociated sensory loss (pain lost, touch preserved)Normal sound, Taste (saliva)Loss of corneal sensation (absent corneal reflex: no eye blinking, either)+ DeafnessNormal facial sensationNormal taste (tongue)Slight facial weaknessTopographic arrangement:1st Great petrosal nerve + Deep petrosal nerve (IC Artery sympathetic) ® Vidian nerve ® Pterygopalatine ganglion ¯ Tears2nd Stapedius n. ® Staples ® ­ Sound3rd Corda tympani ® Lingual nerve ®¯ Taste anterior 2/3 SalivaFacial swellingBell’s palsy

4 SEXY QUESTIONS FOR FACIAL MOVEMENT

  • Rise (the eyebrows)
  • Screw (the eyes shut)
  • Blow (the cheeks)
  • Smile

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