Edema – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Oedema Definition of Edema Accumulation of excessive amount of fluid in the extravascular interstitial space of the body. Interstitial space is the extravascular compartment of the extracellular fluid and surrounds the cells of a given tissue. Anasarca is a severe and generalized edema with profound… Read More

Cyanosis

Synonyms: Blue disease Definition of Cyanosis Cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the skin, mucous membrane and nail bed usually owing to atleast 5 gm/dl of reduced hemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin or abnormal hemoglobin derivatives (eg. methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, etc.) in the capillary blood perfusing the area. Normally, cyanosis is evident… Read More

X-ray of Mastoids

While we have more sophisticated radiological techniques of examination of the mastoids, the ability to read an X-ray of mastoid is a must for the undergraduate students of the medicine. While describing an X-ray in ENT or Otorhinolaryngology, you need to comment on these points:… Read More