Ethambutol Induced Optic Neuropathy

Mechanism of Ethambutol induced optic neuropathy Ethambutol is metabolized to a chelating agent. The chelating agent formed then may impair the function of metal-containing mitochondiral enzymes, such as the copper containing cytochrome-c oxidase of complex IV and the iron containing NADH:Q oxidoreductase of complex I.… Read More

Thoracocentesis : Practical Essentials

Absolute contraindications of thoracocentesis There are no absolute contraindications to diagnostic thoracocentesis. If clinical judgement dictates that the information gained from the pleural fluid analysis may help in diagnosis and therapy, thoracocentesis should be performed. Necessity of an immediate alternative procedure such as open thoracostomy… Read More

MEN syndrome Mnemonics

MEN syndrome is an autosomal dominant (AD) predisposition to developing multiple endocrine tumors. Points to remember: Parathyroid hyperplasia is common to Men I and Men IIa syndrome. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid is common to MEN IIa and MEN IIb syndrome. MEN I occurs due to… Read More