Synonyms: Spoon-shaped nails, Concave nails Definition of koilonychia: Loss of longitudinal and lateral convexity of the nail, with thinning and fraying of the distal portions. Conditions associated with koilonychia: Normal variant Soft nails with occupational damage Iron deficiency anemia Hemochromatosis Raynaud’s syndrome Psoriasis (Koilonychia with subungual… Read More

Relative Bradycardia

Synonyms: Faget sign, Sphygmo-thermic dissociation, Sphygmo-thermal dissociation Definition of Relative Bradycardia Physiologically, for each 1 °F rise in body temperature, there is a commensurate increase in the heart rate of 10 beats/min . When temperature elevations are not accompanied by a physiologic increase in the… Read More

Diabetic Ketosis without Acidosis

Ketosis and Ketonuria Ketosis and Ketonuria may occur whenever increased amounts of fat are metabolized, carbohydrate intake is restricted, or the diet rich in fats (either “hidden” or obvious). This state can occur in the following situations: a. Metabolic conditions: Diabetes mellitus Renal glycosuria Glycogen… Read More