Few Etiology Mnemonics


  • N: Non pitting Lymphedema
  • A: Autoimmune disorders (thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis)
  • I: Infections (Pneumonia, AIDS)
  • L: Lung disorders (pleural effusions and bronchiectasis)
  • S: Serious: Malignancy (mycosis fungoides, laryngeal carcinoma, bronchial carcinoma, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gallbladder cancer, NH Lymphoma)

DIASTEMA causes (see Terry Thomas “sign”)

  • D: Developmental cyst orofacial line
  • I: Inherited (genetic)
  • A: Anterior traumatic bite
  • S: Superior labial frenum
  • T: Tumor (odontomas occurring in the maxillary midline)
  • E: Excessive teeth (supernumerary)
  • M: Migration -pathologic migration of the teeth
  • A: Arch size discrepancy


  • A: ACE inhibitor, ARBs
  • N: Nuts (peanuts allergy)
  • G: Gleich syndrome (angioedema episodic + hypereosinophilia,  Â­IgM, no end organ involvement or cardiac damage); Gland associated (hypothyroidism)
  • I: Insect bites (bees), idiopathic
  • O: Other: SLE, Lymphomas
  • E: Esterase inhibitor C1 deficiency, Everolimus
  • D: Drugs: NSAIDs (Brufen)
  • E: Egg & shellfish allergy
  • M: Morphine, codeine, Milk containing Penicillin
  • A: Aspirin


  • S: Septic emboli, Sunitinib & Sorafenib (TKI, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors)
  • P: Psoriasis, & Psittacosis; Proximal & multiple in women look for systemic disease.
  • L: Lichen planus
  • I: Infections: Infective endocarditis & Meningococcus; Disseminated histoplasmosis
  • N: Neoplasia, Nitrofurantoin
  • T: Trauma, Terbinafine, Tetracyclines
  • E: Erythematosus (SLE, APS)
  • R: Rheumatic [Behcet’s, Raynaud’s, Cutaneous Vasculitis] & Renal disease (hemodialysis & post-transplant)


  • E: Endocrine [Diabetes Mellitus 4%]
  • R: RA [Rheumatoid Arthritis 60%]
  • Y: Infections [HBC, HCV]
  • T: Thyroid [TSH low – hyperthyroidism] Topiramate & salbutamol (w/normal liver functions]
  • H: Hepatic disease [Cirrhosis 23%, Wilson’s disease, Hemochromatosis] Hand Foot Syndrome (following chemotherapy – lots of drugs]; Hereditary
  • E: Exposure to smoking, & COPD
  • M: Mum – Pregnancy 30%
  • A: Atopic dermatitis, Amiodarone (with Gemfibrozil & Cholestyramine with liver abnormalities); Attention: breast cancer – primary & metastatic.


  • H: Hg (Mercury) poisoning
  • Y: hYpoglossal palsy
  • P: Pellagra (B3 – niacin deficiency); Pregnancy; Parkinson’s disease; Pyridostigmine & Pilocarpine; Pancreatitis
  • E: Epiglottitis
  • R: Rabies; Risperdal
  • S: Serotonin syndrome
  • A: Arsenic & Thallium poisoning
  • L: Liver disease
  • I: IM Clozapine (nocturnal drooling)
  • V: VII facial bilateral nerve palsy
  • A: ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, MSA Multiple System Atrophy (Parkinson’s); Myasthenia Gravis
  • T: Tonsillitis
  • I: Infection (oral)
  • O: Organophosphates
  • N: Neurologic (bulbar palsy); Nicotine


  • F: Fizzy drinks & Foods (Hard to digest), Fructose intolerance
  • A: Aerophagia; Alcohol (muscle relaxant)
  • R: Related to Asanas (Yoga positions) & Respiration: Snoring (OSA Obstructive Sleep Apnea); Regular farting Reduces bloating (keep doing it 5-15 xs/day)
  • T: Tolerance to milk decreased  (Lactose intolerance)
  • I: IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • N: Neoplasia (colon obstruction; NSAIDs & others (Statins, Varenicline – Champix)
  • G: Giardiasis
  • S: Sorbitol & Xylitol

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