Icterus – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Jaundice Definition of Icterus Icterus is the yellowish discoloration of skin and mucous membrane and body fluids (CSF, joint fluid, cysts) evident as a result of hyperbilirubinemia with subsequent deposition of bile pigments in tissue which is rich in elastin. The Greeks claimed the… Read More

Pallor – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Paleness Definition of Pallor Pallor is the paleness of skin and mucous membranes, due to the reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin or decreased peripheral perfusion. Sites to look for pallor Lower palpebral conjunctiva Tip and dorsum of the tongue Soft palate Nail beds Palmar or… Read More

ECG changes in Pulmonary embolism

Synonyms: Pulmonary artery embolism, Pulmonary embolus, PE Definition: A pulmonary embolus (PE) is a blood clot that embolizes to the lungs. When a clot from peripheral veins, the right atrium or the right ventricle travels into the pulmonary circuit, it effectively blocks forward blood through… Read More

Pathology Spotters: Instruments

Pathology Spotter Series: Instruments Level: Undergraduate (MBBS) A) Spotter 1: Instrument: Paraffin Block Use: Tissue embedding – After adding fixative, biopsies are embedded in paraffin/wax to support the tissue so that thin sections or slices can be cut and placed on a microscope slide. B)… Read More