Heart Disease in pregnancy

Mortality risk associated with pregnancy

Group I – Mortality <1%

  1. Shunts: ASD, VSD, PDA, Corrected TOF
  2. Valve replacement: Biosynthetic
  3. Right sided valvular disease: Pulmonary or tricuspid
  4. Mitral stenosis: NYHA I and II

Group II – Mortality 5-15%

  • Left sided valvular disease: Coarctation of aorta, Aortic stenosis
  • Mitral stenosis: with AF or NYHA III and IV
  • Valve replacement: Mechanical
  • Others: Uncorrected TOF, Previous MI

Group III – Mortality 25-50%

  • Pulmonary hypertension (primary or secondary i.e. Eisenmenger’s syndrome)
  • Complicated coarctation of aorta
  • Marfan syndrome with aortic root involvement (>40 mm)
pregnancy shaving

Commonest in Pregnancy

Valvular heart disease: Mitral stenosis

Congenital heart disease: ASD

Cyanotic congenital heart disease: Fallot’s tetralogy (TOF)

Predictors of Cardiac Events during Pregnancy

N – NYHA Class >II

O – Obstructive lesions of left heart (Aortic valve <1.5 cm; Mitral valve <2 cm)

P – Pre-pregnancy cardiac events (Heart failure, arrhythmia, TIA, Stroke)

E – Ejection fraction <40%

Number of predictors equals risk of cardiac events:

  • 0: 5%
  • 1: 27%
  • >1: 75%


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