Germ Layer Derivatives – Mnemonics

Principle of Germ Layer Segmentation Ectoderm gives further rise to neuroectoderm and neural crest cells. Endoderm remains intact. Mesoderm gives further rise to paraxial mesoderm (somitomeres and 35 pairs of somites), intermediate mesoderm, and lateral mesoderm: The somites segment into the sclerotome (forms axial cartilage and… Read More

Branchial Apparatus Made Easy

Synonym: Pharyngeal apparatus Branchial (resembling fish gills) apparatus is like a sandwich – mesoderm and neural crest cells (branchial arch) between opposing outer ectoderm (cleft or groove) and inner endoderm (pouch). They develop around the pharyngeal foregut and are wedged between the developing heart and brain. Note… Read More