Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain

Recommendations for Prescribing Opioid in Chronic pain 1. 1st line of therapy in chronic pain outside of active cancer, palliative or end of life care must be nonpharmacologic therapy and nonopioid pharmacologic. Consider opioid therapy in combination with nonpharmacologic or nonopioid pharmacologic therapy if benefits… Read More

Opioid Receptors Mnemonic

Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. Mu (µ) Receptor (MOP) Mnemonic: MU CARDS Miosis eUphoria Constipation Analgesia (Supraspinal + Spinal) Respiratory depression Rigidity (truncal) Dependency Sedation µ1 mediates supraspinal analgesia, and most of other effects including spinal… Read More

Antidepressants Made Easy

Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCA) Mnemonic: -pramine, -triptyline, -pin Secondary amines: predominantly norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors Nor-triptyline Desi-pramine Tertiary amines: Ami-triptyline Imi-pramine Clomi-pramine Doxe-pin Irreversible MAO Inhibitors Mnemonic: TIPS Non-selective MAO inhibitors: Tranylcypromine Isocarboxazid Phenelzine Selective MAO-B inhibitor: Selegiline (transdermal patch) Reversible Inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA) Moclobemide Tolaxatone… Read More

Steroid Induced Leukocytosis

Mechanism of Steroid Induced Leukocytosis There are 3 major mechanisms responsible for corticosteroid induced granulocytosis: 1. Demargination of neutrophils from endothelial cells (60% of the rise): Recall the leukocyte adhesion cascade in the chapter of inflammation. L-selectins are present in leukocytes that mediates their rolling… Read More

MDR and XDR TB

Antitubercular drug symbols H = Isoniazid R = Rifampicin Z = Pyrazinamide E = Ethambutol S = Streptomycin Km = Kanamycin Cm = Capreomycin Lfx = Levofloxacin Ofx = Ofloxacin Mfx = Moxifloxacin Eto = Ethionamide PAS = Para-aminosalicylic acid Cs = Cycloserine Amx/Clv =… Read More