Dizziness : History and Examination

HISTORY Mnemonic: 4D-3E-2Fg-2H 1. Define “Dizziness”: Room is spinning/rocking/somersaulting – Vertigo Feel like “going to faint” – Near-syncope “Going to fall” or “Unsteady on feet” – Disequilibrium Feel like they’ve or are “left their body” or “floating/swimming” – Psychophysiologic dizziness 2. Duration of each episode:… Read More

Ethambutol Induced Optic Neuropathy

Mechanism of Ethambutol induced optic neuropathy Ethambutol is metabolized to a chelating agent. The chelating agent formed then may impair the function of metal-containing mitochondiral enzymes, such as the copper containing cytochrome-c oxidase of complex IV and the iron containing NADH:Q oxidoreductase of complex I.… Read More