Branchial Apparatus Made Easy

Synonym: Pharyngeal apparatus Branchial (resembling fish gills) apparatus is like a sandwich – mesoderm and neural crest cells (branchial arch) between opposing outer ectoderm (cleft or groove) and inner endoderm (pouch). They develop around the pharyngeal foregut and are wedged between the developing heart and brain. Note… Read More

Facial Nerve Anatomy

SYNONYMS: Cranial nerve seven (VII), Nervus facialis COURSE OF FACIAL NERVE Supranuclear pathways 1. Somatomotor cortex: controlling motor component of facial nerve lies in precentral gyrus (Broadmann area 4,6,8) 2. Volitional component: Corticonuclear tracts descend and cross to supply both ipsilateral and contralateral facial (mainly… Read More