Origin of Maxillary artery: Terminal branch of External Carotid Artery (ECA)
Derived from: 1st Arch
Divisions of Maxillary artery: 3 parts by lateral pterygoid
- 1st part (Mandibular part): winds around deep to neck of mandible
- 2nd part (Pterygoid part): travels between 2 heads of lateral pterygoid
- 3rd part (Pterygopalatine part): enters pterygopalatine fossa containing pterygopalatine galnglion
Branches of Maxillary artery
- Each of the 3 divisions gives off 5 branches.
- Mandibular artery, i.e. Inferior alveolar artery is a branch of maxillary artery
- 2nd part: Branches supply muscles of mastication and do not cross through foramina in bones (all branches from 1st and 2nd part do cross)
Branches from 1st part
Mnemonic: Mandibular part gives off branches to 5 “M“s:
- Meatus (External auditory meatus)
- Meninges and mater (duramater)
- Meckel’s cave
- Membrane (tympanic membrane)
Mnemonic: Remember the branches with the mnemonic “DAMIA”
Clinical significance: Middle meningeal artery injury results in Extradural hematoma (EDH).
a. Deep auricular artery: External acoustic meatus
b. Anterior tympanic artery: Tympanic membrane
c. Middle meningeal artery: Duramamter and Skull bones
d. Inferior alveolar artery: Mandible
e. Accessory meningeal artery: Middle fossa duramater and Meckel’s cave (trigeminal ganglion)
Branches from the 2nd part
Mnemonic: They supply muscles of mastication which are also derivatives of the 1st arch.
a. Anterior and Posterior Deep temporal artery: Temporalis
b. Pterygoid artery: Lateral and medial pterygoids
c. Masseteric artery: Masseter
d. Buccal of Buccinator artery: Buccinator
Branches from the 3rd part
Mnemonic: Remember the 5 “P“s
a. Posterior superior alveolar artery: Maxilla
b. Pterygoid canal artery: Upper part of pharynx and tympanic cavity
c. Palatine – Descending palatine artery: Gives off greater and lesser palatine artery and supplies hard and soft palate respectively
d. Palatine – Sphenopalatine or Nasopalatine artery: Supplies nasal cavity
e. Pharyngeal artery: Pharynx
There’s one more branch from the 3rd part, i.e. Infraorbital artery which gives off Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Artery.
Clinical significance: Sphenopalatine artery is a common cause of posterior epistaxis and may need ESPAL (Endoscopic Sphenopalatine Artery Ligation).