Edema – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Oedema Definition of Edema Accumulation of excessive amount of fluid in the extravascular interstitial space of the body. Interstitial space is the extravascular compartment of the extracellular fluid and surrounds the cells of a given tissue. Anasarca¬†is a severe and generalized edema with profound… Read More

Cyanosis – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Blue disease Definition¬†of Cyanosis Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membrane resulting from an increased concentration of reduced hemoglobin/deoxyhemoglobin (>5 gm/dl) or abnormal hemoglobin derivatives (eg. methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, etc.) in the capillary blood perfusing the area. Normally, cyanosis is evident when the Oxygen… Read More

Icterus – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Jaundice Definition of Icterus Icterus is the yellowish discoloration of skin and mucous membrane and body fluids (CSF, joint fluid, cysts) evident as a result of hyperbilirubinemia with subsequent deposition of bile pigments in tissue which is rich in elastin. The Greeks claimed the… Read More

Pallor – Physical Examination

Synonyms: Paleness Definition of Pallor Pallor is the paleness of skin and mucous membranes, due to the reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin or decreased peripheral perfusion. Sites to look for pallor Lower palpebral conjunctiva Tip and dorsum of the tongue Soft palate Nail beds Palmar or… Read More